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List of Sustainable Trees and Shrubs
(species I through Z only)

Ilex crenata
Zone 5-7
Japanese Holly
Varies with cultivar
Small-leaved evergreen shrub prefers moist, well-drained soil, full sun/part shade, adaptable.
Ilex glabra
Zone 5-9
Inkberry Holly
6-8' x 8-10'
Small-leaved deciduous shrub prefers moist to wet soils, shade tolerant. 'Compacta’ is a better-shaped plant than the species. Native.
Ilex x meserveae hybrids
Zone 5-8
Blue Holly
Variable spread
Evergreen shrub prefers moist, well-drained soil supplemented with organic matter, acid conditions, sun/part shade. Dark blue-green leaves, bright red berries. Well adapted to New England. Many cultivars favored by deer.
Ilex pedunculosa
Zone 5-8
Longstalk Holly
15-25' x 15'
Prefers moist, acid soil, sun/part shade. Leaves resemble Mountain Laurel, bright red berries on long stalks.
Ilex serrata
Ilex verticillata

Zone 3-9
Finetooth Holly
Winterberry

6-10' x equal spread
Deciduous shrubs. Prefer moist, acid soils supplemented with organic matter, does well under wet conditions, also in lighter soils but is considered drought intolerant, sun/light shade. Plants are dioecious, both sexes required for pollination and berry production. Many cultivars available; fruit colors up after the first frost and is often retained through the winter. Tolerates heavy pruning; fruits on new wood. The hybrid ‘Sparkleberry’, a National Arboretum introduction, is noted for its persistent berries.
Itea virginica
Zone 5-9
Virginia Sweetspire
3-5' x 6'
Moist, fertile soils, tolerates wet or dry conditions, pH adaptable, full sun/part shade. Cultivar ‘Henry’s Garnet’ sports white flowers in upright spikes in June-July; foliage reddish-purple color in fall.
Juniperus chinensis
Zone 3-9
Chinese Juniper
Varies with cultivar
Moist, well-drained soils, pH adaptable, sun. Salt, drought and wind tolerant. Useful as a groundcover, shrub, screen, etc., depending on the cultivar. Some cultivars susceptible to blights, which can cause serious dieback. The following cultivars are reported to be resistant to one or two of the blights: ‘Foemina’ (P), ‘Iowa’ (P), ‘Keteleeri’ (P), ‘Pfitzeriana-aurea’ (P+K), ‘Robusta Green’ (P), var. sargentii (P+K), ‘Gold Coast’ (K).
Juniperus conferta
Zone 6-9
Shore Juniper
1.5' x spreading
Adaptable to poor, dry soils, full sun, salt tolerant, good for coastal locations. Low-growing groundcover, intolerant of wet soils.
Juniperus virginiana
Zone 3-9
Eastern Red Cedar
15-30' x 8-10'
Adaptable to poor, droughty soils, pH adaptable, full sun, salt tolerant. Alternate host for cedar-apple rust. Tough native plant for screening, naturalizing, coastal planting.
Kalmia latifolia
Zone 4-9
Mountain-Laurel
7-15' x similar spread
Requires acid, moist soil supplemented with organic matter, good drainage, full sun to shade. A good native plant if sited correctly. Many new cultivars available; red and pink flowered forms need full sun to develop good flower color.
Kalopanax septemlobus
Zone 4-7
Castor-aralia
40-60' x equal spread
Moist soils, full sun. Tolerant of alkaline soil and long lived. Coarse textured plant provides tropical effect in the landscape.
Kerria japonica
Zone 4b-9
Japanese Kerria
3-6' x 6-9'
Hearty, free-flowing shrub. Plant in full sun/part shade. ‘Pleniflora’ has double, golden yellow flowers and grows in an upright, lanky form. Best grown unpruned except thinning.
Koelreuteria paniculata
Zone 5-9
Goldenraintree
30-40' x equal spread
Adaptable to a wide range of soils, tolerates drought, heat, wind, pH and air pollution. Yellow blossoms in mid-summer followed by lantern-like seed capsules in fall.
Kolkwitzia amabilis
Zone 4-8
Beautybush
6-10' x 8'
Adaptable to a variety of soil conditions; prefers moist, well-drained soils and full sun. Usually requires annual pruning of older canes to retain form and prevent legginess, or cut back to ground.
Larix kaempferi
Larix laricina

Zone 4-7
Japanese Larch
Eastern Larch

70-90' x 25-40'
Prefers moist, well-drained, acid soils. Will not tolerate heat, shade or pollution. L. laricina only grows to 40-80', less heat tolerant.
Ledum groenlandicum
Zone 2-5
Labrador Tea
2-4' x equal spread
Dwarf evergreen shrub forms a rounded mass. Prefers moist, sandy, peaty soils in sun to part shade. Transplants easily. Pure white flowers in May-June.
Leucothoe species
Zone 5-8
Leucothoe
2-6' x equal spread depending on species
Broadleaf, evergreen shrub that is good for naturalizing. Prefers moist, acid soil, partial to full shade.
Lindera benzoin
Zone 4-9
Spicebush
6-12' x equal spread
Prefers acid, moist soils in full sun/partial shade. Small greenish-yellow flowers appear in early spring. Bright green leaves turn bright yellow in fall. Fruit bright red in late September to October.
Liquidambar styraciflua
Zone 6-9
American Sweetgum
60-75' x 2-3 spread
Difficult to transplant and needs large area for root development. Beautiful, glossy green leaves with rich yellow-purple fall color. Messy fruit.
Liriodendron tulipifera
Zone 4-9
Tuliptree
70-90' x 35-50'
Large tree. Full sun, pH adaptable. Prefers moist soils. Golden yellow fall color. Beautiful green-orange flowers do not appear until tree matures.
Lonicera sempervirens
Zone 4-9
Trumpet Honeysuckle
Climbing 10-20'
Fast growing, twining vine. Orange-red to red to yellow flowers in early spring. Great for hummingbirds.
Maackia amurensis
Zone 4-7
Amur Maackia
20-30' x equal spread
Very adaptable, full sun, pH and drought tolerant.
Magnolia acuminata
Zone 3-8
Cucumbertree Magnolia
50-80' x equal spread
Prefers moist, well-drained acid soils, but performs well in calcareous soils also. Not tolerant of extreme drought or wetness, or air pollution. Native.
Magnolia species
Zone 5-8
Magnolia
15-40' x equal spread
Many species and cultivars available. Most prefer moist, well drained soil but can be tolerant of high pH. Sun/part shade. M. x loebneri particularly urban tolerant.
Magnolia ashei
Magnolia denudata
(formerly M. heptapeta)
Magnolia kobus
Magnolia kobus stellata
Magnolia x loebneri
Magnolia x soulangiana
Magnolia sieboldii
Magnolia virginiana

Zone 5-9
Ashe Magnolia
Yulan Magnolia

Kobus Magnolia
Star Magnolia
Loebner Magnolia
Saucer Magnolia
Oyama Magnolia
Sweetbay Magnolia

10-20' x equal spread
Does well in wet soils, considered drought intolerant, prefers acid soil, tolerates light shade. Semi-evergreen in protected areas. Native.
Mahonia aquifolium
Zone 5-7
Oregon Grapeholly
3-6' x 3-5'
Does well in moist, acid soil. Prefers shade and protection from wind. Bright yellow flowers in April, attractive blue fruit in autumn.
Malus species
Zone 4-7
Crabapple
Varies with cultivar
Quite adaptable to many soil types but prefers well-drained, acid conditions, full sun, salt tolerant. The best crabapples flower annually and are disease resistant. See Appendix 1 for a listing. Crabapples are particularly attractive to Japanese beetle adults, and may need protection when beetle populations are high.
Metasequoia glyptostroboides
Zone 5-8
Dawn Redwood
70-100' x 25'
Deciduous conifer suitable for large areas. Attractive orange-brown fall color. Prefers deep, well-drained, slightly acid soils. Full sun.
Microbiota decussata
Zone 3-7
Russian Arborvitae
12" x 10-12'
Low growing evergreen shrub, bright green summer foliage turning purple-brown in winter. Graceful branchlets arranged in flat sprays. Prefers moist soils, tolerant of shade, very cold hardy.
Myrica pensylvanica
Zone 3-6
Northern Bayberry
5-12' x equal spread
Does extremely well in poor sandy soils, may adapt to heavy soils, full sun/light shade. Salt tolerant. Myrica gale, or Sweetgale, is a low growing (2-4') deciduous shrub native to Rhode Island.
Nemopanthus mucronatus
Zone 4-6
Mountain Holly
6-10' x equal spread
Deciduous, native shrub. Good for naturalizing in cold climates. Tolerates moist soils. Bright red fruit in late summer.
Nyssa sylvatica
Zone 4-9
Black Tupelo, Sour Gum
30-50' x 20-30'
Prefers moist, well-drained soils but tolerates wet soils, will also grow on upland areas. Full sun/light shade. Difficult to transplant. Excellent orange-scarlet fall foliage.
Ostrya virginiana
Zone 4-9
American Hop Hornbeam,
Ironwood

25-40' x 15-30'
Prefers moist, well-drained soils, slightly acid. Tolerates dry conditions once established, full sun/part shade. One of the most drought tolerant and salt resistant small trees. Difficult to transplant.
Oxydendrum arboreum
Zone 5-9
Sourwood
25-30' x 20'
Prefers moist, well-drained soils, slightly acid, tolerates dry conditions, full sun/part shade. Drooping flower clusters in mid-summer; excellent burgundy fall foliage.
Pachysandra procumbens
Pachysandra terminalis

Zone 4-8
Allegheny Pachysandra
Japanese Pachysandra

6-12" high
One of the best evergreen ground covers for deep shade. Spreads by rhizomes to form a dense mat. White flowers in March to early April. ‘Green Sheen’ is a particularly nice pest free cultivar of P. terminalis.
Parrotia persica
Zone 5-8
Persian Parrotia
20-40' x 15-30'
Excellent pest-free specimen tree with attractive exfoliating bark and fall color. Tolerant of varying conditions once established, sun/part shade.
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Parthenocissus tricuspidata

Zone 4-9
Virginia Creeper,
Japanese Creeper,
Boston Ivy

Climbing 30-50'
Deciduous vine will crawl on ground, up trees or other structures. Tolerates virtually any condition. Low maintenance cover for walls. Foliage of P. quinquefolia is more lustrous and leaf is 3-lobed.
Paxistima canbyi
Zone 3-7
Canby Paxistima
1' x 3-5'
Low growing, evergreen shrub with dark green leaves. Full sun/part shade. Tolerates high pH.
Phellodendron amurense
Zone 4-7
Amur Corktree
30-45' x equal or greater spread
Adaptable to a wide range of soils, tolerates pH, drought, air pollution and full sun. Grows quite large so siting is important; fruit can be messy.
Philadelphus species
Zone 4-8
Sweet Mockorange
10-12' x 10-12'
Sweetly scented white flowers. Full sun/light shade. Transplants readily. Fast growing.
Physocarpus opulifolius
Zone 2-7
Common Ninebark
5-10' x 6-10'
Native shrub easily transplanted and adaptable. Full sun/part shade. Tolerates all soil conditions and drought. Good for naturalizing.
Picea glauca
Zone 2-6
White Spruce
40-60' x 10-20'
Broad conical tree. Prefers full sun to some shade. Light green needles form dense shape. ‘Conica’, the Alberta Spruce, is widely sold and used in the landscape. Susceptible to spider mites, particularly when grown against buildings.
Picea omorika
Picea orientalis

Zone 4-7
Serbian Spruce
Oriental Spruce

50-60' x 20-30'
Graceful evergreen trees tolerate drought, high pH and urban conditions. Protect from winter winds.
Pieris floribunda
Zone 4-8
Mountain Pieris, Fetter Bush
2-6' x equal spread
Evergreen shrub prefers moist, well-drained soil, tolerant of high pH and resistant to lacebug. Susceptible to Phytophthora root rot if not sited in a well-drained location. An interspecific hybrid, ‘Brouwer’s Beauty’, has flower clusters that are horizontal and arching.
Pieris japonica
Zone 5-7
Japanese Pieris
9-12' x 6-8'
Upright, broadleaf evergreen shrub with bronze new growth which changes to dark green at maturity. White, slightly fragrant urn-shaped flowers appear in March to April. Plant in partial shade to minimize lacebug problems.
Pinus banksiana
Zone 2-7
Jack Pine
35-50' x irregular spreading
Very hardy for colder climates. Will survive in almost pure sand, and dry, acid soils. Initially pyramid shaped but becomes more open and flat-topped at maturity.
Pinus bungeana
Zone 5-7
Lacebark Pine
30-50' x 20-35'
Nice specimen tree with interesting, exfoliating bark. Prefers well-drained soil and sun. Tolerant of high pH.
Pinus cembra
Pinus koraiensis

Zone 4-7
Swiss Stone Pine
Korean Pine

30-40' x 15-20'
Prefers well-drained, acidic soil, good air circulation, full sun. Slow growing, hardy, and salt tolerant. P. cembra possible substitute for Japanese and Austrian Black pines.
Pinus parviflora
Zone 4-7
Japanese White Pine
25-50' x similar or greater spread
Requires good drainage but tolerates most soil conditions including soil compaction. Salt tolerant. Drought tolerant once established.
Pinus strobus
Zone 3-7
Eastern White Pine
50-80' x 20-40'
Prefers moist, well-drained soils but tolerates dry conditions, full sun/light shade, rapid growing when young. Subject to white pine weevil damage to terminal, intolerant of salt. An excellent native evergreen.
Potentilla fruticosa
Zone 2-6
Bush Cinquefoil
1-4' x 2-4'
Moist, well-drained soils but is very adaptable, will do well under dry conditions, full sun/light shade, likes neutral to alkaline conditions. Extremely cold hardy. Long bloom period. Many improved cultivars available.
Prunus maackii
Zone 3-6
Amur Chokecherry
35'-45' x 20-35'
Small dense tree with cinnamon-brown exfoliating bark. Prefers well-drained soil, pH tolerant, sun/shade. White flowers in May.
Prunus maritima
Zone 3-6
Beach Plum
6' x equal spread
Adaptable to most soil conditions except wet, drought tolerant once established, full sun, salt tolerant. White flowers in May followed by purple fruit in late summer. Good for naturalizing in coastal plantings.
Prunus sargentii
Zone 4-7
Sargent Cherry
20-30' x similar spread
Moist, well-drained soils, full sun/light shade. Single pink flowers in spring before the foliage, fall colors of yellow to red. Considered short-lived though relatively free of problems in a trouble-prone genus.
Prunus subhirtella
Zone 5-8
Higan Cherry
20-40' x wider spread
Culture similar to the above; semi-double pink flowers in spring, occasionally re-blooming in fall. Considered short-lived though relatively pest free. ‘Autumnalis’ is a recommended variety.
Pseudolarix amabilis
Zone 5-7
Golden-larch
30-50' x 20-40'
Slow-growing specimen tree, deciduous, golden yellow fall color. Prefers well-drained soil in full sun, tolerates air pollution.
Ptelea trifoliata
Zone 3-9
Hoptree
15-20' x equal spread
Prefers moist, well-drained soils but very adaptable, sun/heavy shade. An interesting native tree with trifoliate leaves and fragrant flowers in June.
Pterostyrax hispida
Zone 4-8
Fragrant Epaulettetree
20-30' x equal spread
Attractive small tree with white fragrant flowers in June. Prefers moist, acid, well-drained soils, sun/light shade.
Pyracantha coccinea
Zone 6-9
Scarlet Firethorn
6-18' x equal spread
Berry-like, orange-red fruit ripens in September and persists into winter. Plant in full sun for best fruit but can tolerate part-shade. Use as an informal hedge. Great for trellising and espaliers on walls. Difficult to transplant.
Pyrus calleryana
Zone 5-8
Callery Pear
30-50' x 20-35'
Adaptable to varying soils, air pollution, etc. ‘Bradford’ has narrow branch crotches that are prone to breaking. ‘Aristocrat’ has more horizontal branching and is less prone to breakage than ‘Bradford’; ‘Chanticleer’ is more narrowly upright and shows better fire blight resistance. White flowers in clusters in spring, good scarlet purple fall foliage.
Quercus acutissima
Zone 6-9
Sawtooth Oak
40-60' x equal spread
Prefers acid, well-drained soils but adaptable to varying conditions, may develop chlorosis on high pH soils, full sun. Simple foliage with serrated edges, attractive yellow fall color.
Quercus alba
Zone 4-9
White Oak
50-80' x equal spread
Adaptable to various soil types; prefers moist, acid conditions, full sun. Dark green lobed leaves, fall color red to brown. Scaly white bark attractive year round. Native.
Quercus bicolor
Zone 4-8
Swamp White Oak
50-60' x equal spread
Moist, acid soils but very drought tolerant once established, broadly lobed, leathery leaf, good dark green color, yellow fall foliage. Drought tolerant. Native.
Quercus imbricaria
Zone 4-8
Shingle Oak
50-60' x equal spread
Simple leaved oak. Easy to transplant, tolerant of dry soils and urban conditions; full sun. Native.
Quercus macrocarpa
Zone 3-8
Bur Oak
70-80' x equal spread
Large tree with large lobed leaves, white undersides. Tolerates dry sites and urban conditions. Difficult to transplant. Native.
Quercus palustris
Zone 4-8
Pin Oak
60-70" x 25-40'
Prefers moist, acid soils, intolerant of high pH, full sun, tolerates wet soils and urban conditions. Deeply lobed leaves with pyramidal growth habit; lower branches droop.
Quercus phellos
Zone 5-9
Willow Oak
40-60' x equal spread
Adaptable to many soil conditions, full sun, fibrous root system allows for ease of transplanting; narrow, simple leaves.
Quercus rubra
Zone 4-8
Northern Red Oak
60-75' x equal spread
Moist, acid soils, full sun. Intolerant of high pH, tolerates urban conditions. Easily transplanted.
Quercus shumardii
Zone 5-9
Shumard Oak
40-60' x equal spread
Leaves may turn red in fall. Easy to transplant. Tolerant of drought or wet conditions.
Quercus velutina
Zone 3-9
Black Oak
50-60' x variable spread
Does well in moist, acid soils. Very difficult to transplant because of extensive tap root. Bark is nearly black with deep, vertical furrows.
Rhododendron species and cultivars
Zone 2-9
 
Ground cover to small tree 
Over 900 species and thousands of hybrids exist, most are low maintenance plants when grown in the appropriate site. They generally prefer moist well-drained acid soils high in organic matter and perform best in partial shade. In full sun winter injury and blossom fading is more pronounced as are problems with lace bugs. In southern New England ‘Dora Amateis’ and R. maximum are particularly susceptible to lacebug when grown in full sun; and to our south, lacebug problems are much more widespread. With the exception of some of the heavily indumented rhododendrons (R. yakushimanum, R. smirnovii and hybrids), all are susceptible to the black vine weevil which can kill small plants. (See discussion under Taxus.) Among the large leaved rhododendrons, R. fortunei and its hybrids (‘Scintillation’) are very attractive to deer. Small leaved rhododendrons, including ‘PJM’, ‘Silvery Pink’, ‘Anglo’, etc., are particularly cold tolerant as are deciduous azaleas (R. schlippenbachii, R. calendulaceum, R. viscosum, etc.). The deciduous Exbury hybrids, however, have too many insect and disease problems to be included on this list. There are thousands of good hardy, hybrid, evergreen azaleas including ‘Hino crimson’, ‘Delaware Valley White’, R. yedoense var. poukhenensis, etc. However, Belgian or florist azaleas are often mistakenly sold as hardy. As a rule of thumb, if the flower looks too good to be true, it is probably not hardy. Several species are native to southern New England, including R. maximum, R. viscosum, R. prinophyllum, R. canadense and R. periclymenoides.
Rhus aromatica
Zone 3-9
Fragrant Sumac
2'-6' x 6-10'
Adaptable to various soil conditions, full sun. Attractive glossy leaves in threes, yellow flowers and spiky male catkins. Native. Spreading habit of cultivar ‘Gro-Low’ makes a good choice for embankments or a ground cover.
Rhus copallina
Zone 4-9
Shining Sumac
5-15' x similar spread
Good for wet or dry, rocky areas or embankments. Careful siting is important as it can form large colonies. Good for naturalizing, excellent fall color.
Sarcococca hookeriana
Zone 6-8
Sweetbox
4-6' x equal spread
Prefers acid, well-drained soils in partial shade to shade. Will tolerate drought and polluted air quality. White, fragrant flowers appear in March-April. S. hookeriana var. humilis grows smaller, has black fruits, and is very cold hardy.
Sassafras albidum
Zone 4-9
Common Sassafras
30-60' x 25-40'
Full sun/light shade. Prefers moist, acid, loamy, well-drained soil. Prune in winter. Excellent for naturalized plantings. Outstanding fall color. Native.
Schizophragma hydrangeoides
Zone 5-7
Japanese Hydrangea-vine
Climbing 20-30'
This clinging vine is similar to but not as vigorous or as large as Hydrangea anomala subsp. petiolaris. Inflorescenses are flat-topped and 8-10" across and droop slightly. Flowers in late June or early July.
Sciadopitys verticillata
Zone 5-7
Japanese Umbrella Pine
20-30' x 15-20'
Prefers moist, well-drained soil, full sun, some protection from wind. Drought tolerant once established. Slow growing.
Sophora japonica
Zone 4-7
Japanese Pagoda Tree
50-75' x wide spreading
Well-drained soil supplemented with organic matter, drought and urban tolerant. White, fragrant flowers in mid summer. ‘Regent’ is reputed to flower earlier than the species.
Spiraea x bumalda
Zone 3-8
Bumald Spirea
2-3' x 4-5'
A tough plant in the landscape, annual pruning required for best effect. White flowers in June-August.
Spiraea x vanhouttei
Zone 3-8
Vanhoutte Spirea
6-8' x 10-12'
Adaptable to various soil types, full sun. White flowers on arching stems in May. Requires pruning of dead wood in spring.
Stephanandra incisa
Zone 4-7
Cutleaf Stephanandra
2-3' x spreading
Graceful shrub prefers well-drained soils supplemented with organic matter, drought intolerant, full sun/part shade. ‘Crispa’ makes an excellent ground cover.
Stewartia koreana
Stewartia pseudocamellia

Zone 6-9
Korean Stewartia
Japanese Stewartia

20-30' x 10-15'
Prefers moist, acid soil supplemented with organic matter. Camellia-like blossoms flower in summer. Sun/shade. Extraordinary exfoliating bark. Leaves have orange-red-bronze fall color.
Styrax japonica
Zone 5-8
Japanese Snowbell
20-30' x equal spread
Prefers moist, well-drained, acid soil supplemented with organic matter, full sun/part shade. May be subject to winter damage in cold sites. Exquisitely fragrant, white, bell-shaped, pendulous flowers in June.
Symphoricarpos x chenaultii
Zone 4-7
Chenault Coralberry
2' x 12'
A cross between S. microphyllus and S. orbiculatus. Pink flowers in June and white fruit in fall. Tolerant of various soil types and high pH. ‘Hancock’ is a beautiful low-growing cultivar.
Syringa meyeri
Zone 3-7
Meyer Lilac
4-8' x 6-12'
Small, dense, mounded shrub. Flower buds emerge early, may be damaged by early frost. Violet-purple flowers cover entire plant for 10-14 days in May. Easy to grow and resistant to mildew. ‘Palibin’ is common compact form.
Syringa microphylla
Zone 4-7
Littleleaf Lilac
6-9' x 12'
Rosy lilac, fragrant, flowers in May to early June. Adaptable, heat tolerant, mildew resistant.
Syringa patula
Zone 4-7
Manchurian Lilac
4-8' x equal spread
Adaptable to various soil conditions, full sun, resistant to powdery mildew. ‘Miss Kim’ is a noteworthy cultivar.
Syringa reticulata
Zone 3-7
Japanese Tree Lilac
20-30' x 15-25'
Good small urban tree prefers well-drained, moist soil, pH tolerant, full sun. Salt and wind tolerant. Resistant to lilac borer and powdery mildew. Early summer flowering. ‘Ivory Silk’ and ‘Summer Snow’ are excellent cultivars.
Taxodium ascendens
Taxodium distichum

Zone 4-9
Pond Baldcypress
Common Baldcypress

50-70' x 20-30'
Prefers moist acid soils, very adaptable to wet or dry soils, full sun. A large tree for parks, estates or wet areas. Good wind tolerant urban tree.
Taxus species and cultivars
Zone 4-7
Yews
Variable spread
High quality, versatile evergreens, slow growing, easily grown and pruned, resistant to many pests. Have been overused, and now black vine weevil is a very serious pest of young plants, particularly in the nursery. Larger plants sited in the landscape are reasonably tolerant of this pest; but because yews can harbor large populations of weevils, landscapers should exercise care in planting small susceptible plants (rhododendron, euonymus, etc.) near infested yews. The foliage and fruit of yew are toxic to children if ingested, yet the foliage qualifies as a deer candy.
Taxus baccata ‘Repandens’
Zone 5-7
Spreading English Yew
2-4' x 12-15'
Hardy dwarf, spreading form has pendulous branch tips and dark green needles. Tolerant of high pH but requires good drainage. ‘Adpressa’ is another good, low, shade-loving cultivar.
Taxus cuspidata
Zone 4-7
Japanese Yew
10-40' x equal spread
Prefers a moist, sandy loam, does not tolerate wet soils for any length of time. Extremely cold hardy.
Taxus x media cultivars
Zone 4-7
Yews
Variable
Hybrids of T. baccatta and T. cuspidata resemble T. cuspidata in many respects. Common cultivars include: ‘Brownii’, ‘Densiformis’, ‘Hatfieldii’, ‘Hicksii’, ‘Nigra’ and ‘Tauntonii’. Prefer moist, sandy loams, not tolerant of wet soil.
Tetradium danielli
Zone 5-8
Korean Evodia
25-30' x equal spread
Prefers moist, well-drained soil. pH adaptable and drought tolerant once established; full sun. Small white flowers in flat-topped clusters in mid summer; attractive to bees.
Thuja occidentalis
Zone 3-7
American Arborvitae
40'-60' x 10'-15'
Very durable. Can be grown in most conditions and soils. Good plant for screens or hedges. Rich green in summer. Plant cultivars that stay green through winter.
Thuja plicata
Zone 5-7
Western Arborvitae
50-70' x 15-25'
Moist, fertile soils but tolerant of drier soils; sun/shade; pH adaptable. A fast growing pyramidal tree with bright evergreen leaves and reddish-brown fibrous bark. Large for many landscapes but possible substitute for Eastern Hemlock.
Thujopsis dolobrata
Zone 5-7
Hiba Arborvitae
30-50' x 10-20'
Dense, pyramidal, evergreen with shiny flattened leaves. Prefers moist, acid soil and some shade. Protect from drying winds.
Tilia species
T. americana
T. cordata
T. tomentosa

Zone 4-7
Linden
American Linden
Littleleaf Linden
Silver Linden

60-80' x 2-3 spread
Easily transplanted. Prefer moist, acid, organic soil. Full sun/part shade; pH adaptable. T. americana is particularly suited for naturalizing. T. cordata will tolerate pollution but is more susceptible to aphids. T. tomentosa is shorter, more sustainable and will tolerate heat and drought. T. tomentosa is recommended for urban and residential plantings.
Tsuga species
Zone variable
Hemlocks
Variable spread
Hemlock wooly adelgid is now a serious pest of both Tsuga canadensis and T. caroliniana throughout southern New England. Hence, we urge caution in the use of these important landscape species. Left untreated, this pest will rapidly kill susceptible hemlocks, but yearly applications of insecticides provide effective control in the landscape. Species resistant to the adelgid include T. diversifolia, T. heterophylla, T. chinensis, T. mertensia and T. sieboldii. While all of these species are being evaluated for regional adaptability, only T. diversifolia and T. heterophylla can be recommended with reasonable confidence at this time.
Tsuga diversifolia
Zone 5-7
Northern Japanese Hemlock
35-60' x 20-30'
Slow growing, multi-stemmed tree with dense, dark green foliage. Prefers moist sites in full sun, easily transplanted. At least one R.I. nursery has been growing this plant for years, and it appears to be well suited to our climate.
Tsuga heterophylla
Zone 6-8
Western Hemlock
60-80' x 30'
Looks very much like Canadian Hemlock. Prefers a humid climate and moist soil. Cold hardiness is marginal in New England; plants from northern Idaho show very slight winter damage, coastal material is probably not hardy here. Plant hardy stock.
Ulmus parvifolia
Zone 5-9
Lacebark Elm
40-50' x equal spread
Adaptable to various soil and pH conditions, good for urban areas, resistant to Dutch elm disease, elm leaf beetle and Japanese beetle. Several new cultivars recently introduced; excellent bark and foliage.
Vaccinium angustifolium
Zone 2-5
Lowbush Blueberry
0.5'-2' x 2' or greater spread
Does very well in dry, acid, poor soils. Lowbush blueberry is a managed wild crop in Maine.
Vaccinium corymbosum
Zone 3-7
Highbush Blueberry
6-12' x 8-12'
Native to swamps but does well in dry, acid, poor and sandy soils in full sun or partial shade. Mulch.
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Zone 2-6
American Cranberry
2-6" x spreading
Evergreen groundcover prefers full sun, acid conditions and moist, cool roots. Pinkish flowers in spring and red, cranberry-like fruit in fall.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Zone 2-5
Cowberry
10"x spreading
Evergreen, dark green foliage turns mahogany in winter. Flowers are white or pinkish borne in May-June. Prefers full sun, moist, peaty soil. Fruit is dark red.
Viburnum acerifolium
Zone 4-8
Mapleleaf Viburnum
4-6' x 4'
Deciduous, native shrub. Very shade tolerant and excellent for naturalizing. Suckering shrubs can form extensive thickets. Flowers are yellowish-white and fall foliage ranges from pink to rose to red to grape.
Viburnum x burkwoodii
Zone 5-8
Burkwood Viburnum
8-10' x 5-7'
Semi-evergreen shrub tolerates heat, cold, and air pollution. Pink buds and white flowers. Very fragrant. Requires slightly moist, well-drained soil, pH adaptable.
Viburnum carlesii
Viburnum x carlecephalum
Vibernum x juddii

Zone 5-7
Koreanspice Viburnum
Fragrant Viburnum
Judd Viburnum

4-5' x 4-8'
Rounded, dense shrub with pink to reddish buds open white in April-May. Fragrance is outstanding. Prefers well-drained, slightly acid soil and full sun/partial shade. ‘Compactum’ is one of the best dwarf clones with very dark green leaves and resistance to leaf spot. V. x carlecephalum blooms in early May, size 10' x 10'. V. x juddii hardy to Zone 4, also to 10'.
Viburnum cassinoides
Zone 3-8
Witherod Viburnum
5-6' x equal spread
Native, dense, rounded shrub. Bronze foliage changes to orange-red or purple in fall. Creamy white flowers. Fruit changes from green to pink, then red to blue, then black in September. Use in borders or for naturalizing.
Viburnum dentatum
Zone 3-8
Northern Arrowwood
6-8' x 6-15'
Native, salt tolerant shrub. Adaptable to various soil conditions, sun/shade. Forms large clumps.
Viburnum dilatatum
Viburnum wrightii

Zone 5-7
Linden Viburnum
Wright Viburnum

8-10' x equal spread
Similar to other viburnums in site preference. White flat-topped flower clusters in May, showy red fruit in fall. pH tolerant.
Viburnum farreri
Zone 5-8
Fragrant Viburnum
8-12' x similar spread
Early to flower, flower buds may be damaged by late frost. White, fragrant blooms in mid-April.
Viburnum lentago
Zone 3-7
Nannyberry Viburnum
15-18' (possibly to 30') x variable spread
Suckers easily to form thicket. Adaptable to a range of conditions. Tolerates sun to shade. Very durable. A good native shrub or small tree for naturalizing.
Viburnum plicatum
Zone 5-7
Doublefile Viburnum var. tomentosum
8-10' x 9-12'
Prefers moist, well-drained soils and shade, not particularly drought tolerant. Lovely bloom along branches in May. Preferred cultivars include ‘Mariesii’ and ‘Shasta’.
Viburnum prunifolium
Zone 3-9
Blackhaw Viburnum
12-15' x 8-12'
Adaptable to various soil conditions, drought tolerant once established, sun/part shade. A good native shrub or small tree for naturalizing.
Viburnum x rhytidophylloides
Viburnum rhytidophyllum

Zone 4-8
Lantanaphyllum Viburnum
Leatherleaf Viburnum

8-10' x equal spread
Evergreen shrubs adaptable to soil conditions, full sun/light shade, needs protection from winter wind. White flat-topped flower clusters in April followed by black fruit effective in the fall. Dark green leathery leaves persist in the fall. ‘Allegheny’ and ‘Willowwood’ are fine selections of V. x rhytidophylloides. V. rhytidophyllum shade tolerant and hardy to zone 5.
Viburnum sargentii
Zone 4-7
Sargent Viburnum
12-15' x equal spread
Adaptable to various soil conditions, pH tolerant, full sun/shade; a number of USDA introductions to choose from: ‘Onondaga’, ‘Susquehanna’. Attractive red fruit last into winter.
Viburnum sieboldii
Zone 4-7
Siebold Viburnum
15-20' x 10-15'
Adaptable to various soil conditions but prefers moist, well-drained soil; pH adaptable, sun/part shade, not particularly drought tolerant. ‘Seneca’ has persistent red fruit.
Viburnum trilobum
Zone 2-7
American Cranberrybush Viburnum
8-12' x equal width
Adaptable to various soil conditions, easy to grow, full sun/part shade. Native.
Weigela florida
Zone 5-8
Weigela
6-9' x 9-12'
Quite adaptable but prefers a moist well-drained soil, full sun, tolerates air pollution. Requires rejuvenation pruning to maintain decent shape; many improved cultivars available. Early summer blooming.
Xanthorhiza simplicissima
Zone 3-9
Yellowroot
2-3' x spreading
Groundcover prefers moist, well-drained soils, tolerates heavy soils, sun/shade, tolerates dry conditions.